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Bio Electro Stimulation Therapy for Parkinson's Disease - Full Text View - atprofinilen.tk

We have a dedicated site for Germany. The first evidence that electrical changes can cause muscles to contract was p- vided by Galvani These researches lead to the development of ever more soph- ticated equipment that could either record the electrical changes in nerves and muscles, or elicit functional changes by electrically stimulating these structures. It was indeed the combination of these two methods that elucidated many of the basic principles about the function of the nervous system.

Following these exciting findings, it was discovered that electrical stimulation and the functions elicited by it also lead to long-term changes in the properties of nerves and particularly muscles. Recent findings help us to understand the mec- nisms by which activity induced by electrical stimulation can influence mature, fully differentiated cells, in particular muscles, blood vessels and nerves.

Electrically elicited activity determines the properties of muscle fibres by activating a sequence of signalling pathways that change the gene expression of the muscle. Thus, elect- cal activity graduated from a simple mechanism that is used to elicit muscle c- traction, to a system that could induce permanent changes in muscles and modify most of its characteristic properties.

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Neuromuscular Diseases and Rehabilitation

Medicine Nursing. Advances in Muscle Research Free Preview. Is it contagious? What causes myasthenia gravis?


Myasthenia gravis is caused by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles. It occurs when normal communication between the nerve and muscle is interrupted at the neuromuscular junction -- the place where nerve cells connect with the muscles they control. Normally when impulses travel down the nerve, the nerve endings release a neurotransmitter substance called acetylcholine.

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Acetylcholine travels from the neuromuscular junction and binds to acetylcholine receptors which are activated and generate a muscle contraction. In myasthenia gravis, antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the muscle contraction from occurring. These antibodies are produced by the body's own immune system. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease because the immune system -- which normally protects the body from foreign organisms -- mistakenly attacks itself.

What procedures and test diagnose myasthenia gravis? Because weakness is a common symptom of many other disorders, diagnosing myasthenia gravis often s missed or delayed sometimes up to two years in people who experience mild weakness or in those whose weakness is restricted to only a few muscles. What is the treatment for myasthenia gravis? Generally, myasthenia gravis can be managed. Several therapies are available that help reduce and improve muscle weakness. These medications improve muscle strength by suppressing the production of abnormal antibodies.

They should be carefully monitored by your doctor because they may cause major side effects. What is the prognosis? With treatment, most individuals with myasthenia can significantly improve their muscle weakness and lead normal or nearly normal lives.

Some cases of myasthenia gravis may go into remission -- either temporarily or permanently -- and muscle weakness may disappear completely so that medications can be discontinued. Stable, long-lasting complete remissions are the goal of thymectomy and may occur in about 50 percent of individuals who undergo this procedure.

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In a few cases, the severe weakness of myasthenia gravis may cause respiratory failure, which requires immediate emergency medical care. What research is being done? Much has been learned about myasthenia gravis in recent years. Technological advances have led to more timely and accurate diagnosis, and new and enhanced therapies have improved management of the disorder. There is a greater understanding about the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction, the fundamental aspects of the thymus gland and of autoimmunity, and the disorder itself.

Despite these advances, however, there is still much to learn. Researchers are seeking to learn what causes the autoimmune response in myasthenia gravis, and to better define the relationship between the thymus gland and myasthenia gravis. Different drugs are being tested, either alone or in combination with existing drug therapies, to see if they are effective in treating myasthenia gravis.

One study is examining the use of methotrexate therapy in individuals who develop symptoms and signs of the disease while on prednisone therapy. The drug suppresses blood cell activity that causes inflammation. Another study is investigating the use of rituximab , a monoclonal antibody against B cells which make antibodies, to see if it decreases certain antibodies that cause the immune system to attack the nervous system.

Investigators are also determining if eculizumab is safe and effective in treating individuals with generalized myasthenia gravis who also receive various immunosuppressant drugs. Another study seeks further understanding of the molecular basis of synaptic transmission in the nervous system. The objective of this study is to expand current knowledge of the function of receptors and to apply this knowledge to the treatment of myasthenia gravis.

Thymectomy is also being studied in myasthenia gravis patients who do not have thymoma to assess long-term benefit the surgical procedure may have over medical therapy alone. One study involves blood sampling to see if the immune system is making antibodies against components of the nerves and muscle.

Researchers also hope to learn if these antibodies contribute to the development or worsening of myasthenia gravis and other illnesses of the nervous system. Investigators are also examining the safety and efficacy of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat refractory and severe myasthenia gravis. Participants in this study will receive several days of treatment using the immumosuppressant drugs cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin before having some of their peripheral blood cells harvested and frozen.

The blood cells will later be thawed and infused intravenously into the respective individuals, whose symptoms will be monitored for five years. Where can I get more information? Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America, Inc. What is systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, lupus? Find out about symptoms, definition, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

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Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation both mental and physical. The causes of fatigue are generally related to a variety of conditions or diseases, for example, anemia, mono, medications, sleep problems, cancer, anxiety, heart disease, and drug abuse.

Treatment of fatigue is generally directed toward the condition or disease that is causing the fatigue. What are myasthenia gravis symptoms and signs? What are myasthenic crises? How is myasthenia gravis diagnosed? What tests are used? What is the prognosis for myasthenia gravis? What research is being done on myasthenia gravis? Where can I get more information on myasthenia gravis?

Myasthenia Gravis Test Electromyogram EMG EMGs can be used to detect abnormal electrical activity of muscle that can occur in many diseases and conditions, including muscular dystrophy, inflammation of muscles, pinched nerves, peripheral nerve damage damage to nerves in the arms and legs , amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS , myasthenia gravis, disc herniation, and others. Why is an EMG test done?

Getting a Correct Diagnosis: A Case History

An EMG is often performed when patients have unexplained muscle weakness. Sign Up for MedicineNet Newsletters! Readers Comments 3 Share Your Story. Readers Comments 2 Share Your Story. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.